Title of the course

Training Workshop: Integrating Quantum Concepts into Cybersecurity

Indication of the desired length of the course

A Full Day Course

One to two paragraphs of introductory text about the course.

The potential for realising quantum based networks and distributed systems has now been realised through reports of networks in excess of 2000km and commercial quantum based private communication networks reported as complete. Quantum based cloud services are now under development on a commercial basis and a quantum based internet is proposed for the future. Associated with these and other developments in for example, types of computer, programming paradigms, operating systems, and event ordering, issues emerge as new quantum concepts are integrated into the cybersecurity landscape.


In this workshop, aimed primarily at researchers new to quantum concepts, we consider a range of underlying concepts employed in the development of ‘secure’ systems for both classical and quantum based networks and distributed systems. From a quantum perspective we will discuss different types of qubit, qudits, superposition, discrete and continuous states, multipartite states, mixed states, entanglement, gates and measurement and their incorporation into the cybersecurity environment.


Research in quantum distributed systems and networks is now said to be in its second wave developing the potential for applications in, for example, satellite communication, quantum based resources and secure communication. 

Identification of any prerequisites for the course

            Elements from linear algebra (vectors, matrices, … )

Identification of any textbooks for the course

            The course will be self-contained though we will reference where appropriate.


Required Equipment

            Attendees should bring a laptop.



Outline for the Training Workshop.

We propose to compare and contrast classical and quantum communication systems with a view to identifying similarities and differences that exist between the two, to present a selection of advantages and disadvantages in employing such paradigms and to consider a selection of vulnerabilities from each, within for example an attacker defender perspective. From a hands on perspective we seek to present a selection of activities that participants can engage in, in order to develop and extend their understanding in working with quantum systems

1.    Introduction (ppt)

a.    Overview

b.    Assets, Motivation, Attackers and Vulnerabilities

c.    A comparison of Classical and Quantum States

d.    Reversible and irreversible Gates

e.    Activity 1    a) States and Gates

                   b) Qiskit 1

                   c) Qiskit 2


2.    Classical and Quantum Networks (ppt)

a.    Communication Channels

b.    Activity 2a Threat models – Communication Channels

c.    Networks and Distributed Systems (ppt)

d.    Activity 2b       a) Threat Models – Teleportation and Entanglement Swapping

                        b) Qiskit 3

3.    Algorithms

a.    Key agreement protocols (ppt)

b.    Activity 3a

c.    Shors and PQC/Quantum Free Algorithms

d.    Activity 3b


4.    A selection of Attack vectors and their Defence (ppt)

a.    Intrusion Prevention and Detection

b.    Quantum Malware

c.    Activity 4


Author: Dr William Joseph Spring

Address: University of Hertfordshire, School of Computer Science. College Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK. AL10 9AB.

Email: j.spring@herts.ac.uk

Telephone: +44 (0)1707284351

Mobile: +44 (0) 7981830473





One to two paragraphs of biographical information about the instructor


            William Joseph Spring PhD, MSc, BSc(Hons), PGCE


Dr William Joseph Spring is currently a senior lecturer in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Hertfordshire in the UK. As a member of the University STRI Research Centre and School Algorithms, AI and Information Research Groups his research interests include Classical and Quantum Based Security for Distributed Systems, (Cybersecurity, Voting Schemes, Cryptography, Protocols, Risk, Algorithms, Programming Paradigms), Modelling and Problem Solving Strategies, and Quantum Stochastic Theory. His PhD students are engaged in areas relating to the above. He was co-author on the first paper written on quantum based voting schemes.


From a lecturing perspective he is involved in a range of modules that include cybersecurity at both the postgraduate level (Distributed Systems Security, Secure Systems Programming, Computational Algorithms and Paradigms) and at the undergraduate level (Quantum Computing, Cyber Security). In addition to his lectures in the UK he has also delivered short courses in India relating to classical and quantum cryptography, and on classical and quantum networks, and to the British Computer Society in the UK he has lectured on quantum distributed systems.



Membership of Professional Bodies and Learned Societies


I am a member of the following professional bodies and learned societies:


° AQPIDA (Association of Quantum Probability and Infinite Dimensional Analysis)

° IAMP (International Association of Mathematical Physicists)

° IACR (International Association for Cryptographic Research)

° IMA (Institute of Mathematics and its Applications)

° LMS (London Mathematical Society)



Public output from research and scholarly activity


P. Kandwal, J. Spring, and H. Xiao, Quantum Based Networks, Quantum Cagliari, Soft Computing, 2019, (Pending)

 J. Abegunde, H. Xiao, and J. Spring, A Smart Game for Data Transmission and Energy in the Internet of Things, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, (2019)

A. Febro, H. Xiao, and J. Spring, Distributed SIP DDoS Defence with P4, (IEEE WCNC), 2019

P. Kandwal, J. Spring, and H. Xiao, Quantum Based Networks - Analysis of Teleportation and Entanglement Swapping, Transactions on Collaborative Computing, 2019

A. Febro, H. Xiao, and J. Spring, Telephony Denial of Service Defence at Data Plane (TDoSD@DP), The First IEEE Workshop on Programmable Data Plane (PDP) in the IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium: Cognitive Management in a Cyber World (2018)

Paul Wernick, Bruce Christianson and Joseph Spring, Simulating Perceptions of Security, Security Protocols, 25th, Cambridge, UK, Stajano, F. (ed.), Lectures in Computer Science, Springer Verlag, (2017)

J. Abegunde, H. Xiao, and J. Spring, A Dynamic Game with Adaptive Strategies for IEEE 802.15.4 and IoT, IEEE Trustcom (2016)

J. Abegunde, H. Xiao, and J. Spring, Resilient Tit-For-Tat (RTFT) - A Game Solution For Wireless Misbehaviour, IEEE Xplore, (2015)

J. Abegunde, H. Xiao, and J. Spring, A Resilient MAC Protocol for Wireless Networks, IMA Conference on Game Theory and its Applications, (2014)

W. J. SPRING, A Quantum Stochastic Calculus, PhD, University of Hertfordshire, (2012)

W. J. SPRING, Multidimensional Quantum Stochastic Integrals, Quantum Communication, Measurement and Computing (QCMC), AIP Conf Proc., vol. 1363 , AIP. (2011)

W. J. SPRING, Multiparameter Quantum Stochastic Processes, QPRT 30, Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis, (2010)

W. J. SPRING, Multiparameter Quantum Processes over the Clifford Sheet, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, (Invited), 49, (No. 3), (2008)

W. J. SPRING, Quasi-Free Stochastic Integrals and Martingale Representation, (CCR), Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis, 23, (2008).

Vaccaro, J., Spring, W J. & Chefles, A, Quantum Protocols for Anonymous Voting and Surveying, Physical Review A, 75, 012333 (2007)